BibleinHebrew-smThe use of essential oils was well-established far before Biblical times. According to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese manuscripts, extracted plants oils were used by priests for spiritual reasons and by physicians for healing thousands of years before Christ. Essential oils were man’s first known medicine.

By the time of Christ, essential oils were well-incorporated into many facets of life, highly-respected and revered and in use by several major societies. Even back then, they were costly and often reserved for the wealthy. They were used in many ways from perfume to anointing to healing ointments.

The Bible contains numerous references to essential oils and/or the plants they’re derived from. This account in Genesis 37:25 tells us that the spice trade was well-established and well-traveled:

“As they sat down to eat their meal, they looked up and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead. Their camels were loaded with spices, balm and myrrh, and they were on their way to take them down to Egypt.”

“And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.” KJV

200px-Tilglath_pileser_iiiAlmost 1,000 years before the time of Christ, ancient world dynasties were fighting over the lucrative incense market. Tiglath-Pileser III attacked Gaza in order to control trade along the Incense Route (see image on left).

Among the most prized of the aromatics was frankincense, reputed to heal conditions ranging from gout to a broken head.

camel-caravan-2“The Frankincense Cartel” routinely transported this costly treasure along the Frankincense Trail in caravans of up to 3000 camels (the Frankincense Trail was a 2,400 mile-long path that began in the southern tip of Arabia and wound its way to the coast of Israel).

According to Dr. David Stewart, the Bible refers to essential oils or aromatic plants and products 1035 times, with at least 33 Bible reference to essential oil producing plants.

Sometimes the name of the plant is used interchangeably with the oil the plant produces (because the plant was used primarily as an oil). The terms “fragrances,” “odors,” “ointments,” “aromas,” “perfumes,” or “sweet savors” are also used to indicate aromatic (essential) oils. Proverbs 27:9, Isaiah 61:3 and Hebrews 1:9 refers to “the oil of joy” or “gladness” and mentions that oils “rejoice the heart.”

The word “oil” is mentioned 191 times in the Bible. Occasionally, this refers to olive oil, but most of the time, it refers to essential oils.

Incense has 68 mentions in the Bible. The Hebrew word for incense, lebonah, is actually frankincense (which roughly translated means “that which results from milking”, referring to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree from which the oil is made. It was also the Arabic term for “Oil of Lebanon” since Lebanon was the place where the resin was sold and traded with Europeans). However, in 54 of the references to incense, the healing oils of frankincense, myrrh, galbanum and onycha are indicated.

According to Wikipedia, Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa for more than 5000 years. A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died in 1458 BCE.

Frankincense was a part of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It is also referred to as the HaKetoret (the incense). It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible book of Exodus 30:34, where it is named levonah (lebonah in Biblical_Hebrew), meaning “white” in Hebrew.


Biblical Recipes:


The Bible sites recipes for essential oil blends. Exodus 30 gives a recipe for a holy anointing oil using fragrant oils and olive oil. The recipe below was reserved strictly for priests:

“The Lord spoke unto Moses saying, Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels, and of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin: And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.”
Exodus 30:22-25 KJV

Another recipe for an anointing oil:

“Take also for yourself the finest of spices: of flowing myrrh five hundred shekels, and of fragrant cinnamon half as much, two hundred and fifty, and of fragrant cane two hundred and fifty, and of cassia five hundred, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin. You shall make of these a holy anointing oil, a perfume mixture, the work of a perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.” Exodus 30:23-25

Instructions on healing the sick by anointing with oil:

James 5:14 Is any sick among you? Let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. KJV

Exodus 29:21 “And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons’ garments with him.”King James Version (KJV)


Gilead’s Balm


Balsam oil also played an important role in Biblical times, especially for the city of Gilead, a major producer of healing balm. During the excavation of this ancient city, remains of a building used for the manufacture of balsam oil was unearthed. The balm of Gilead was highly regarded for its amazing ability to heal wounds. The balm is noted in Jeremiah 8:22:

Is there no balm in Gilead? Is there no physician there? Why then is there no healing for the wound of my people? NIV

The balsam oil of Gilead had such a celebrated reputation that after the Roman emperor Titus (79-81 A.D.) conquered Gilead, he displayed branches from Gilead’s balsam trees in his triumphal march through Rome.

So critical to the prosperity of Gilead was the production of this balm that all residents of Gilead were to keep the manufacturing process a closely guarded secret. The Biblical Archaeology Review reported that archeologists found a stern warning inscribed in the stone floor of a synagogue in Gilead that stated, “Whoever reveals the secret of the village to the gentiles, the one whose eyes roam over the entire earth and sees what is concealed will uproot this person and his seed from the sun.” (Biblical Archaeology Review, Sep/Oct 1996)


Essential Oils Compared to Unity and Happiness


Psalms 133:2 compares brethren dwelling together in unity to precious essential oils: “It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments.”

Another scripture that refers to anointing and the overflowing abundance of precious oils is

Ecclesiastes 9:8: “Let thy garments be always white; and let thy head lack no ointment.”

More Scriptural References to Essential Oils

Cedarwood

120px-Atlas_Cedar_Cedrus_atlantica_'Glauca'_Tree_Base_3008pxCedarwood (Cedrus Atlantica) – Used by Egyptians for embalming the dead, and as a traditional medicine, purifier and incense in ancient cultures. It is high in sesquiterpenes which can stimulate the limbic region of the brain and pineal gland. Cedarwood is mildly antiseptic and can be effective against hair loss (alopecia areata), tuberculosis, bronchitis, respiratory system issues, anxiety, gonorrhea, and skin disorders like acne and psoriasis. It can also reduce hardening of artery walls and calm the nervous sytem.

Leviticus 14:51 “And he shall take the cedar wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times:”

Leviticus 14:52 “And he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird, and with the cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet.”

Numbers 19:6 “And the priest shall take cedar wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast [it] into the midst of the burning of the heifer.”

Numbers 24:6 “As the valleys are they spread forth, as gardens by the river’s side, as the trees of lign aloes which the Lord hath planted, [and] as cedar trees beside the waters.”

2 Samuel 5:11 “And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.”

2 Samuel 7 “That the king said unto Nathan the prophet, See now, I dwell in an house of cedar, but the ark of God dwelleth within curtains.”

2 Samuel 7:7 “In all [the places] wherein I have walked with all the children of Israel spake I a word with any of the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to feed my people Israel, saying, Why build ye not me an house of cedar?”

1 Kings 4:33 “And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that [is] in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes.”

1 Kings 5:6 “Now therefore command thou that they hew me cedar trees out of Lebanon; and my servants shall be with thy servants: and unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou shalt appoint: for thou knowest that [there is] not among us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians.”

1 Kings 5:8 “And Hiram sent to Solomon, saying, I have considered the things which thou sentest to me for: [and] I will do all thy desire concerning timber of cedar, and concerning timber of fir.”

1 Kings 5:10 “So Hiram gave Solomon cedar trees and fir trees [according to] all his desire.”

1 Kings 6:9 “So he built the house, and finished it; and covered the house with beams and boards of cedar.”

1 Kings 9:11 “([Now] Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.”

2 Kings 19:23 “By thy messengers thou hast reproached the Lord, and hast said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and will cut down the tall cedar trees thereof, [and] the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the lodgings of his borders, [and into] the forest of his Carmel.”

1 Chronicles 22:4 “Also cedar trees in abundance: for the Zidonians and they of Tyre brought much cedar wood to David.”

2 Chronicles 1:15 “And the king made silver and gold at Jerusalem [as plenteous] as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycamore trees that [are] in the vale for abundance.”

2 Chronicles 2:8 “Send me also cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees, out of Lebanon: for I know that thy servants can skill to cut timber in Lebanon; and behold, my servants [shall be] with thy servants,”

2 Chronicles 9:27 “And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycamore trees that [are] in the low plains in abundance.”

Ezra 3:7 “They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.”

Isaiah 41:19 “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil tree; I will set in the desert the fir tree, [and] the pine, and the box tree together:”

Ezekiel 17:3 “And say, Thus saith the Lord God; A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers, which had divers colors, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar:”

Ezekiel 17:22 “Thus saith the Lord God; I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set [it]; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant [it] upon an high mountain and eminent:”

Ezekiel 17:23 “In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant it: and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit, and be a goodly cedar: and under it shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in the shadow of the branches thereof shall they dwell.”

Zechariah 11:2 “Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down.”


Cinnamon


cinnamon_sticksCinnamon (Cinnamomum Verum) – Cinnamon is highly antimicrobial for a large spectrum of infection as well as anti-infectious, antiviral, antifungal (candida), cedarwood increases blood flow when previously restricted. Dr. J. C. Lapraz found that viruses could not live in the presence of cinnamon oil. It has been produced in Sri Lanka for over 2,000 years and was used in the Middle East and Asia for fighting viruses and infectious diseases.

Proverbs 7:17 “I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.”

Song of Solomon 4:14 “Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:”

Revelation 18:13 “And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.”

Exodus 30:23 “Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels” KJV

In the New Living Translation: “Collect choice spices — 12-1/2 pounds of pure myrrh, 6-1/4 pounds of fragrant cinnamon, 6-1/4 pounds of fragrant calamus” NLT


Fir


fir-ongreenFir (Albies alba) – Today, fir is best-known as the traditional Christmas tree. The essential oil of fir has be prized through the ages for its medicinal virtues for respiratory conditions and muscular and rheumatic pain.

It has been researched for its ability to kill airborne germs and bacteria and conditions such as bronchitis, respiratory congestion and fatigue.

1 Kings 6:15 “And he built the walls of the house within with boards of cedar, both the floor of the house, and the walls of the ceiling: [and] he covered [them] on the inside with wood, and covered the floor of the house with planks of fir.”

1 Kings 6:34 “And the two doors [were of] fir tree: the two leaves of the one door [were] folding, and the two leaves of the other door [were] folding.”

1 Kings 9:11 “([Now] Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee.”

2 Kings 19:23 “By thy messengers thou hast reproached the Lord, and hast said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and will cut down the tall cedar trees thereof, [and] the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the lodgings of his borders, [and into] the forest of his Carmel.”

2 Chronicles 2:8 “Send me also cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees, out of Lebanon: for I know that thy servants can skill to cut timber in Lebanon; and, behold, my servants [shall be] with thy servants.”

2 Chronicles 3:5 “And the greater house he cieled (paneled) with fir tree, which he overlaid with fine gold, and set thereon palm trees and chains.”

Psalms 104:17 “Where the birds make their nests: [as for] the stork, the fir trees [are] her house”

Song Of Solomon 1:17 “The beams of our house [are] cedar, [and] our rafters of fir.”

Isaiah 14:8 “Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, [and] the cedars of Lebanon, [saying], Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.”

Isaiah 37:24 “By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord, and hast said, By the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, [and] the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the height of his border, [and] the forest of his Carmel.”

Isaiah 41:19 “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil tree; I will set in the desert the fir tree, [and] the pine, and the box tree together:”

Isaiah 55:13 “Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree: and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign [that] shall not be cut off.”

Isaiah 60:13 “The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and I will make the place of my feet glorious.”

Ezekiel 27:5 “They have made all thy [ship] boards of fir trees of Senir: they have taken cedars from Lebanon to make masts for thee.”

Ezekiel 31:8 “The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.”

Hosea 14:8 “Ephraim [shall say], What have I to do any more with idols? I have heard [him], and observed him: I [am] like a green fir tree. From me is thy fruit found.”

Nahum 2:3 “The shield of his mighty men is made red, the valiant men [are] in scarlet: the chariots [shall be] with flaming torches in the day of his preparation, and the fir trees shall be terribly shaken.”

Zechariah 11:2 “Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down.”


Frankincense


frankincense-trail057-300Frankincense (boswellia carteri) – Very high in sesquiterpenes, which help stimulate the limbic system of the brain as well as hypothalamus, pineal, and pituitary glands. Frankincense is considered the “holy anointing oil” in the Middle East and has been used in religious ceremonies for thousands of years. It was valued more than gold during ancient times. It was highly regarded during Biblical times for its anointing and healing powers and was one of the gifts given to Christ at His birth by the three wise men.

Exodus 30:34 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight:

Leviticus 2:1 And when any will offer a meat offering unto the LORD, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon:

Leviticus 2:2 And he shall bring it to Aaron’s sons the priests: and he shall take thereout his handful of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD:

Leviticus 2:15 “And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it [is] a meat offering.”

Leviticus 2:16 “And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, [part] of the beaten corn thereof, and [part] of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: [it is] an offering made by fire unto the Lord.”

Leviticus 5:11 “But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put [any] frankincense thereon: for it [is] a sin offering”

Leviticus 6:15 “And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which [is] upon the meat offering, and shall burn [it] upon the altar [for] a sweet savour, [even] the memorial of it, unto the Lord.”

Leviticus 24:7 “And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon [each] row, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, [even] an offering made by fire unto the Lord.”

Numbers 5:15 “Then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and he shall bring her offering for her, the tenth [part] of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it [is] an offering of jealousy, an offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance.”

1 Chronicles 9:29 “[Some] of them also [were] appointed to oversee the vessels, and all the instruments of the sanctuary, and the fine flour, and the wine, and the oil, and the frankincense, and the spices.”

Nehemiah 13:5 “And he had prepared for him a great chamber, where aforetime they laid the meat offerings, the frankincense, and the vessels, and the tithes of the corn, the new wine, and the oil, which was commanded [to be given] to the Levites, and the singers, and the porters; and the offerings of the priests.”

Nehemiah 13:9 “Then I commanded, and they cleansed the chambers: and thither brought I again the vessels of the house of God, with the meat offering and the frankincense.”

Song Of Solomon 3:6 “Who [is] this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the merchant?”

Song Of Solomon 4:6 “Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, I will get me to the mountain of myrrh, and to the hill of frankincense.”

Song Of Solomon 4:14 “Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:”

Matthew 2:11 “And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshiped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.”

Revelation 18:13 “And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.”


Hyssop


220px-Hyssopus_officinalisHyssop (Hyssopus Officinalis) – It is not known with certainty if (Hyssopus Officinalis) is exact same species as the hyssop referred to in the Bible. But there is no question that (Hyssopus Officinalis) has been used medicinally for almost a thousand years for its antiseptic, disinfecting and anti-infectious properties, and for opening the respiratory system.

It has been used for anxiety, arthritis, asthma, bruises, coughs, cuts, dermatitis, indigestion, fatigue nervous tension, parasites, rheumatism, sore throats, viral infections, wounds, regulating the lipid metabolism and preventing scarring.

Psalms 51:7 “Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.”

John 19:29 “Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put [it] upon hyssop, and put [it] to his mouth.”

Leviticus 14:49 “And he shall take to cleanse the house two birds, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop:”

Leviticus 14:51 “And he shall take the cedar wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times:”

Leviticus 14:52 “And he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird, and with the cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet string.”

Numbers 19:6 “And the priest shall take cedar wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast [it] into the midst of the burning of the heifer.”

Numbers 19:18 “And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip [it] in the water, and sprinkle [it] upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched a bone, or one slain, or one dead, or a grave.”

1 Kings 4:33 “And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that [is] in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes.”

Hebrews 9:19 “For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people.”


Myrrh


220px-Commiphora-myrrha-resin-myrrhMyrrh (Commiphora Molmol) – Myrrh is anti-infectious, antiviral, parasitic, hormone-like, anti-inflammatory, soothes skin conditions, anti-hyperthyroid, and supports immune system. Myrrh was used by the Arabian people for many skin conditions, such as chapped and cracked skin and wrinkles. It is also helpful for bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, stretch marks, coughs, gingivitis, sore throat, thrush, ulcers, viral hepatitis.

The most significant thing about Myrrh is that it has one of the highest levels of sesquiterpenes, which have directly effect on the hypothalamus, pituitary and amygdala.

Genesis 43:11 And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds

Esther 2:12 “Now when every maid’s turn was come to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that she had been twelve months, according to the manner of the women, (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odours, and with other things for the purifying of the women;)”

Psalms 45:8 “All thy garments [smell] of myrrh, and aloes, [and] cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.”

Proverbs 7:17 “I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.”

Song Of Solomon 1:13 “A bundle of myrrh [is] my wellbeloved unto me; he shall lie all night betwixt my breasts.”

Song Of Solomon 3:6 “Who [is] this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frank-incense, with all powders of the merchant?”

Song Of Solomon 4:6 “Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, I will get me to the mountain of myrrh, and to the hill of frankincense.”

Song Of Solomon 4:14 “Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:”

Song Of Solomon 5:1 “I am come into my garden, my sister, [my] spouse: I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk: eat, O friends; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved.”

Song Of Solomon 5:5 “I rose up to open to my beloved; and my hands dropped [with] myrrh, and my fingers [with] sweet smelling myrrh, upon the handles of the lock.”

Song Of Solomon 5:13 “His cheeks [are] as a bed of spices, [as] sweet flowers: his lips [like] lilies, dropping sweet smelling myrrh.”

Matthew 2:11 “And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshiped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.”

Mark 15:23 “And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received [it] not.”

John 19:39 “And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound [weight].”


Myrtle


220px-Myrtus_communisMyrtle (Myrtus communis) – The actions of Myrtle are as an expectorant, anti-infections, liver stimulant, prostate decongestant, light antispasmodic. It is hormone-like for the thyroid and ovary and a tonic for the skin. Dr. Daniel Penoel researched Myrtle for normalizing hormonal imbalances of the thyroid and ovaries ans well as balancing the hypothyroid. It has also been researched for its soothing effects on the respiratory system.

Zechariah 1:8 “I saw by night, and behold a man riding upon a red horse, and he stood among the myrtle trees that [were] in the bottom; and behind him [were there] red horses, speckled, and white.”

Zechariah 1:10 “And the man that stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, These [are they] whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth.”

Zechariah 1:11 “And they answered the angel of the Lord that stood among the myrtle trees, and said, We have walked to and fro through the earth, and, behold, all the earth sitteth still, and is at rest.”


Spikenard


Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi) – Highly regarded in India as a perfume, medicinal herb, and skin tonic. Spikenard was one of the most precious oils in ancient times, used only by priests, kings, or high initiates. It may also help in treating allergic skin reactions, candida, flatulent indigestion, insomnia, menstrual difficulties, migraine, nausea, rashes, staph, stress, tachycardia, tension and wounds. According to Dietrich Gumbel, Ph.D. it strengthens the heart and circulatory system.

Song of Solomon 1:12 “While the king sitteth at his table, my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof.” (While the king sat at his table, My spikenard sent forth its fragrance. American Standard Version)

Song of Solomon 4:14 “Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, with all chief spices.”

Mark 14:3 “And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured [it] on his head.”

John 12:3 “Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.”

Quick Reference —
Biblical References To Essential Oils*

Anise (Pimpenella anisum) Matthew 23:23

Balm (Commiphora opobalsamum) Genesis 37:25 Genesis 43:11 Jeremiah 8:22 Jeremiah 46:22 Jeremiah 51:8 Ezekiel 27:17

Bay (Laurilus nobilis) Psalms 37:35

Bdellium (Commiphora africana) Numbers 11:7

Calamus (Acorus calamus) Exodus 30:23 Song of Solomon 4:14 Ezekiel 27:19

Cedarwood (Cedrus libani) Leviticus 14:4 Leviticus 14:6 Leviticus 14:49 Leviticus 14:52 Numbers 19:6

Cedarwood (aromatic lumber) 2 Samuel 7:2 2 Samuel 7:7 1 Kings 5:8 1 Kings 6:9 1 Kings 6:10 1 Kings 6:15 1 Kings 6:16 1 Kings 6:18 1 Kings 6:20 1 Kings 6:36 1 Kings 7:2 1 Kings 7:3 1 Kings 7:7 1 Kings 7:12 1 Chronicles 14:1 1 Chronicles 17:1 1 Chronicles 17:6 1 Chronicles 22:4 2 Chronicles 2:3 Song of Solomon 1:17 Song of Solomon 8:9 Jeremiah 22:14 Jeremiah 22:15 Ezekiel 27:24 Zephaniah 2:14

Cedarwood (aromatic trees) Numbers 24:6 Judges 9:15 2 Samuel 5:11 1 Kings 4:33 1 Kings 5:6 1 Kings 5:10 1 Kings 7:11 1 Kings 9:11 1 Kings 10:27 2 Kings 14:9 2 Kings 19:23 1 Chronicles 22:4 2 Chronicles 1:15 2 Chronicles 2:8 2 Chronicles 9:27 2 Chronicles 25:18 Ezra 3:7 Job 40:17 Psalms 29:5 Psalms 80:20 Psalms 92:12 Psalms 104:16 Psalms 148:9 Song of Solomon 5:15 Isaiah 2:15 Isaiah 9:20 Isaiah 14:8 Isaiah 37:24 Isaiah 44:14 Jeremiah 22:7 Ezekiel 17:3 Ezekiel 17:22 Ezekiel 17:23 Ezekiel 31:3 Ezekiel 31:8 Amos 2:9 Zechariah 11:1 Zechariah 11:2

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) Exodus 30:24 Ezekiel 27:19 Psalm 45:8

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) Exodus 30:23 Proverbs 7:17 Song of Solomon 4:14

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Exodus 16:31 Numbers 11:7

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) Isaiah 28:25 Isaiah 28:27a Isaiah 28:27b Matthew 23:23

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Genesis 6:14 Isaiah 41:19 Isaiah 44:14 1 Kings 9:11 Song of Solomon 1:17

Dill (Anethum graveolens) Isaiah 28:25 Isaiah 28:27 Matthew 23:23

Fir (Abies alba) 2 Samuel 6:5 1 Kings 5:8 1 Kings 5:10 1 Kings 6:15 1 Kings 5:34 1 Kings 9:11 2 Chronicles 3:5 Song of Solomon 1:17

Fir (aromatic trees) 2 Kings 6:5 2 Chronicles 2:8 Psalms 104:17 Isaiah 14:8 Isaiah 37:24 Isaiah 41:19 Isaiah 55:13 Isaiah 60:13 Ezekiel 27:5 Ezekiel 31:8 Hosea 14:8 Nahum 14:8 Zechariah 11:2

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Exodus 28:34 Exodus 39:26 1 Samuel 14:2 Song of Solomon 4:3 Song of Solomon 6:7 Song of Solomon 8:2 Joel 1:12 Haggai 2:19 Essential Oils and/or Aromatic Plants of the Bible Source: Healing Oils of the Bible by David Stewart

There are over 260 references & 33 Plant Species.

Frankincense (Boswellia carteri) Exodus 30:34 Leviticus 2:1 Leviticus 2:15 Leviticus 2:16 Leviticus 5:11 Leviticus 6:15 Leviticus 24:7 Numbers 5:15 1 Chronicles 9:29 Nehemiah 13:5 Nehemiah 13:9 Song of Solomon 3:6 Song of Solomon 4:6 Song of Solomon 4:14 Isaiah 43:23 Isaiah 60:6 Isaiah 66:3 Jeremiah 6:20 Jeremiah 17:26 Jeremiah 41:5 Matthew 2:11

Galbanum (Ferula gummosa) Exodus 30:34

Henna (Camphire) or (Lawsonia inermis) Song of Solomon 1:14 Song of Solomon 4:13

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Exodus 12:22 Leviticus 14:4 Leviticus 14:6 Leviticus 14:49 Leviticus 14:51 Leviticus 14:52 Numbers 19:6 Numbers 19:18 1 Kings 4:33 Psalms 51:7 John 19:29 Hebrews 9:19

Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) 1 Kings 19:4 1 Kings 19:5 Job 30:4 Psalms 120:4

Mint (Mentha longifolia) Matthew 23:23 Luke 11:42

Mustard Seed (Brassica nigra) Matthew 13:31 Matthew 17:20 Mark 4:31 Luke 13:19 Luke 17:6

Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) Genesis 37:25 Genesis 43:11 Exodus 30:23 Exodus 30:34 Esther 2:12 Psalms 45:8 Proverbs 7:17 Song of Solomon 1:13 Song of Solomon 3:6 Song of Solomon 4:6 Song of Solomon 4:14 Song of Solomon 5:1 Song of Solomon 5:5 Song of Solomon 5:13 Matthew 2:11 Mark 15:23 John 19:39

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) Nehemiah 8:15 Isaiah 41:19 Isaiah 55:13 Zechariah 1:8 Zechariah 1:10 Zechariah 1:11

Onycha (Styrax benzoin) Exodus 30:34

Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Nehemiah 8:15 Isaiah 41:19 Isaiah 60:13

Rose of Isaiah (Narcissus tazetta) Isaiah 35:1

Rose of Sharon (Cistus ladanifer) Song of Solomon 2:1

Rue (Ruta graveolens) Luke 11:42

Saffron (Crocus sativus) Song of Solomon 4:14

Sandalwood (see Aloes)

Shittah (Acacia) or (Acacia arabica) Exodus 25:5 Exodus 25:10 Exodus 25:13 Exodus 25:23 Exodus 25:28 Exodus 26:15 Exodus 26:26 Exodus 26:32 Exodus 26:37 Exodus 27:1 Exodus 27:6 Exodus 30:1 Exodus 30:5 Exodus 35:7 Exodus 35:24 Exodus 36:20 Exodus 36:31 Exodus 36:36 Exodus 37:1 Exodus 37:4 Exodus 37:10 Exodus 37:25 Exodus 38:1 Exodus 38:6 Deuteronomy 10:3 Isaiah 41:19

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi) Song of Solomon 1:2 Song of Solomon 4:13 Song of Solomon 4:14 Matthew 26:7 Mark 14:3 Luke 7:37 John 12:3

Terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus – Oak tree) Genesis 35:4 Judges 6:11 Judges 6:19 Joshua 24:26 2 Samuel 18:9 2 Samuel 18:10 2 Samuel 18:14 1 Kings 13;14 1 Chronicles 10:12 Isaiah 1:30 Isaiah 6:13 Ezekiel 6:13

Wormwood (Artemisia judiaca) Deuteronomy 29:18 Proverbs 5:4 Jeremiah 9:15 Jeremiah 23:15 Lamentations 3:15 Lamentations 3:19 Revelation 8:11


Olive Trees And Oil

Olive (Olea europaea) Genesis 8:11 Exodus 27:20 Exodus 30:24 Leviticus 24:12 Deuteronomy 6:11 Deuteronomy 8:8 Deuteronomy 24:20 Deuteronomy 28:40 Judges 9:8 Judges 9:9 1 Kings 6:23 1 Kings 6:31 1 Kings 6:32 1 Kings 6:33 2 Kings 18:32 1 Chronicles 27:28 Nehemiah 8:15 Job 15;33 Psalms 52:8 Psalms 128:3 Isaiah 17:6 Isaiah 24:13 Jeremiah 11:16 Hosea 14:6 Amos 4:9 Habakkuk 2:19 Zechariah 4:3 Zechariah 4:11 Zechariah 4:12 Romans 11:17 Romans 11:24 James 3:12 Revelation 11:4 Olives Judges 15:5 Micah 6:15 Zechariah 14:4 Matthew 21:1 Matthew 24:3 Matthew 26:30 Mark 11:1 Mark 13:3 Mark 14:26 Luke 19:29 Luke 19:37 Luke 21:37 Luke 22:39 John 8:1

  • Source: Healing Oils of the Bible by David Stewart

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